Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L-lysine-dextroamphetamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant prodrug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. Its chemical structure consists of dextroamphetamine coupled with the essential amino acid L-lysine. Lisdexamfetamine itself is inactive and acts as a prodrug to dextroamphetamine upon cleavage of the lysine portion of the molecule. Lisdexamfetamine can be prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 6 and up as well as adults – as a part of a treatment program that may include other measures (i.e., psychological, educational, social). The safety and the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in people three to five years old have not been established. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for treatment of binge eating disorder in January 2015. Lisdexamfetamine is also being investigated for possible treatment of major depressive disorder, cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia, excessive daytime sleepiness. Lisdexamfetamine is a Class B/Schedule II substance in the United Kingdom and a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States (DEA number 1205) and the aggregate production quota for 2014 is 23,750 kilograms of anhydrous acid or base. Lisdexamfetamine is licensed under the brand name Vyvanse in the United States and Canada, Venvanse in Brazil, and Elvanse in the United Kingdom, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland, Spain and Norway (Tyvense in Ireland). Lisdexamfetamine is currently in Phase II trials in Japan for ADHD and was approved by The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat binge eating disorder (BED) in adults.